The Constitutional Coup 1953 as the Start Point
The Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad dismissed the government of
the Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin despite it enjoying the support of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and then in 1954 he dismissed the Constituent Assembly itself to prevent it changing the constitution to restrict the Governor-General’s powers
as he never wanted his power and control to be curtailed.
The First Military Coup and Double Cross in 1958 by Gen Ayub Khan
The first Pakistani President Major General Isakander Mirza dismissed the Constituent Assembly and appointed Army Commander-in-Chief Gen Ayub Khan as the Chief martial law administrator with a mandate to keep law and order under check. Isakander Mirza
had full faith on Ayub khan but was unaware of the game of attaining absolute power and ironically on thirteenth day Mirza was exiled by Gen Ayub Khan to appoint himself as president.
of Promotion in 1976 resulted in 1977 Fair Play
Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali forcefully retired seven army generals to promote Lieutenant-General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to four star rank
in return Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the first and only civilian Colonel Commandant of the Armoured Corps. But Bhutto forgot that power and greed attracts more power till it reaches its absolute position. Accordingly, Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad
Zia-ul-Haq made a blue print to attain absolute power and on 05 July 1977 under a code name of Operation Fair Play overthrew the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto with a promise of “free and fair elections” within 90 days and
which never happened in next 11 Years till his death in a plane crash in 1988 which finally brought the curtains down for Zia-ul-Haq.
The Big Bang by General Pervez Musharraf in 1999
In 1998, Prime Minister Sharif effectively relieved Chairman joint chief General Jehangir Karamat from the command on delivering a controversial lecture at the Naval War College in Karachi and
choosing then-Lieutenant-General Pervez Musharraf over two senior army generals for the army chief and acting Chairman joint chiefs.
After Kargil War, Sharif and General Musharraf held
each other responsible for the actions in the Kargil, charging each other of lying and hiding details of war to the nation and with this as a backdrop there were widespread rumors of either possible military takeover or resignation of General Musharraf.
In October 1999, Prime Minister Sharif dismissed General Musharraf from the command of the military while he was official visit to Sri Lanka. Things did not end up here, Pakistan Civil Aviation
Authority was ordered by Sharif to divert the General Musharraf flight to India and then to Nawabshah (Pak) and finally to land at Karachi airport only after Pak military police sealed the civilian airport and seized the control of the control tower. The military
police also seized the control of the state-run media television and encircled the Prime Minister Secretariat building and cutting off the international phone lines.
Musharraf took over as Chief Executive only after detaining Sharif in a local prison. Musharraf declare a state of emergency and issued a Provisional Constitutional Order that ultimately suspended the writ of the Constitution of Pakistan and dissolved the
National Assembly. However, General Musharraf strongly objected the wordage use of “martial law” or “coup d’état”, instead insisting that: “This is not martial law, only another path towards democracy. The ISPR also
confirmed and played to the tunes of General Musharraf.
The first military coup of 1958, led by
General Ayub Khan, has set up a pattern in Pakistan where today, most of the policy matters, such as the foreign or domestic are crafted with the tacit approval of the Pakistan military. The Pakistan military continues to dominate the government either directly
at the center or indirectly in charge of several institutions. This core imbalance in civil-military affairs is primarily due to what Pakistan inherited at the time of the independence of Pakistan.
There will always be deficiencies within the governance systems that need debugging exercises and corrective actions. Transparency, accountability and responsibility in democratic governance can go a long way in stabilising under currents in Pakistan
and protecting against total loss of democratic control by another military takeovers or game of attaining absolute power.
07 Jul 21/Wednesday Written By: Shadow